William D. Nordhaus y Paul M. Romer galardonados con el premio Nobel en Economía 2018

Los estadounidenses William D. Nordhaus y Paul M. Romer ganaron hoy el Nobel de Economía por haber abordado métodos para favorecer el crecimiento sostenible y sobre la relación entre la economía y el clima, informó hoy la Real Academia de las Ciencias Sueca.

Ambos “han diseñado métodos que abordan algunos de los asuntos más fundamentales y urgentes de nuestro tiempo: el crecimiento sostenible a largo plazo en la economía global y el bienestar de la población”.

Nordhaus, señaló la Academia, muestra en sus investigaciones cómo la actividad económica interactúa con la química y física básicas para causar el cambio climático.

Fue “la primera persona que creó un modelo cuantitativo que describe la interactuación entre la economía y el clima”, añadió la Academia.

Los trabajos de Nordhaus muestran además que la manera más eficaz de combatir las consecuencias de los problemas causados por el cambio climático “es un plan global de impuestos sobre el carbono en todos los países”.

En cuanto a Romer, sus investigaciones muestran que “la acumulación de ideas apoyan el crecimiento económico a largo plazo. Demostró cómo las fuerzas económicas están detrás de la voluntad de las empresas para generar nuevas ideas e innovaciones”

La Academia destacó que Romer puso las bases de lo que se conoce como “la teoría del crecimiento endógeno”, que “ha generado gran cantidad de nueva investigación en reglamentaciones y políticas que fomentan ideas nuevas y la prosperidad a largo plazo”.

El Nobel de Economía, cuyo nombre real es Premio de Ciencias Económicas en memoria de Alfred Nobel, es el único de los seis galardones no creado en su día por el magnate sueco, sino que fue instituido en 1968 a partir de una donación a la Fundación Nobel del Banco Nacional de Suecia con motivo de su 300 aniversario.

El premio ha sido otorgado 49 veces por la Real Academia de las Ciencias Sueca a 79 personas, pero solo una mujer lo ha ganado, la estadounidense Elinor Ostrom, que lo compartió en 2009 con Oliver Williamson por sus análisis sobre política económica de las propiedades comunes.

Los dos ganadores se repartirán los 9 millones de coronas suecas (970.000 euros) con que están dotados este año cada uno de los Nobel, que se entregan el 10 de diciembre en una doble ceremonia en Oslo, para el de la Paz, y Estocolmo, para el resto.

El galardón de Medicina abrió el lunes pasado la ronda de anuncios de la presente edición de estos prestigiosos premios, seguido por los de Física, Química y el de la Paz, el pasado viernes.

El galardón se entregó justo después de que los expertos sobre el Cambio Climático de la ONU alertaran sobre la urgencia de limitar el calentamiento global para evitar daños irreparables.

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