Trump impondrá aranceles del 25% a las importaciones de acero y del 10% a las de aluminio

Donald Trump ha anunciado este jueves que firmará “la próxima semana” la imposición de aranceles del 25% a las importaciones de acero y del 10% a las aluminio de algunos países, que estarán en vigor “por un largo periodo de tiempo”.

“Las estaremos firmando la próxima semana. Y tendrán protección por un largo periodo de tiempo”, ha señalado el presidente estadounidense tras un encuentro con líderes empresariales de la industria en la Casa Blanca en el que no ha mencionado los países afectados.

En la reunión con la industria del acero y el aluminio, entre los que se encontraban representantes de Arcelor Mittal, Nurcor o US Steel Corporation , Trump les ha dicho que “básicamente la mayoría de ustedes estarán inmediatamente expandiendo (sus operaciones) si les damos un campo de juego equilibrado. Lo que se ha permitido que pasase por décadas es una desgracia”.
Para todos los públicos Trump avisa a las empresas con fuertes aranceles si fabrican fuera de EE.UU para venderlos luego dentro
reproducir video 01.24 min
Trump avisa a las empresas con fuertes aranceles si fabrican fuera de EE.UU para venderlos luego dentro
Señala a China, India, Brasil, Rusia y Corea del Sur

Trump tenía hasta mediados de abril para decidir qué medidas adoptar, después de que el Departamento de Comercio le enviase un informe sobre los efectos de las importaciones de estos productos sobre “la seguridad nacional” de Estados Unidos en el que recomendaba aplicar estos aranceles o cuotas.

En el informe, enviado por el Departamento de Comercio a mediados de febrero, se recomendaba la aplicación de fuertes aranceles a la importación de acero y aluminio de hasta el 50% y se planteaba la posibilidad de adoptar de cuotas.

“China es la gran responsable“

Aunque Trump no ha citado países en concreto, el secretario de Comercio, Wilbur Ross, ha subrayado en el documento, conocido como Informe 232, que China es “la gran responsable” del exceso de acero en los mercados internacionales, ya que el gigante asiático “solo en un mes produce lo mismo que EE.UU. en todo un año”. Otros países explícitamente señalados son India, Brasil, Rusia y Corea del Sur.

La decisión ha sido además criticada por el lobby del aceite y el gas Api, que ha señalado que el plan de Trump “subirá los costes” en estos sectores.
La comunidad internacional rechaza la decisión

Los reproches de la comunidad internacional no se han hecho esperar. El presidente de la Comisión Europea, ha lamentado la decisión de Trump y ha indicado que la UE “va a reaccionar firmemente y proporcionalmente para defender sus intereses, que nada tiene que ver con seguridad nacional”. En un comunicado, Juncker ha añadido que en los próximos días la Comisión presentará “una propuesta de contramedidas contra Estados Unidos, compatibles con las reglas de la Organización Mundial del Comercio (OMC), para reequilibrar la situación”.

También la industria alemana del acero ha instado a la UE a “proceder contra esto con los instrumentos de la OMC”. El presidente de la Asociación de Acero alemana, Hans Juergen Kerkhoff ha advertido de que Estados Unidos “está creando una barrera de comercio para protegerse de las importaciones de acero de todo el mundo, lo que viola claramente las reglas de la OMC”.

Por su parte, el ministro de Comercio canadiense ha advertido de que todo impuesto por parte de EE.UU. es “inaceptable”.

Según los analistas, el rechazo generalizado de la comunidad internacional podría desencadenar una guerra comercial internacional ante el paso al frente del proteccionismo comercial del presidente estadounidense.

En enero, el mandatario estadounidense ya había ordenado imponer restricciones a las importaciones de lavadoras y paneles solares, pero las medidas anunciadas contra el acero y aluminio, de acuerdo a los analistas, son de mucho mayor impacto por el volumen de negocio que generan estos sectores.
Wall Street cierra con fuertes pérdidas y el Dow Jones baja un 1,69%

Los nuevos aranceles han impactado en la Bolsa de Wall Street, que ha experimentado fuertes pérdidas en la jornada del jueves.

Finalmente, el Dow Jones ha cerrado con una bajada del 1,69% y ha perdido 422,56 puntos, hasta 24.606,64 unidades; el índice S&P ha restado un 1,35% y el índice compuesto de Nasdaq ha retrocedido un 1,28%. Además, las acciones de Boeing se han desplomado ante la preocupación (-3,33%), las de United Technologies (-3,27%), Intel (-2,94%), Caterpillar (-2,88%), American Express (-2,42%) y Goldman Sachs (-2,34%).

También se han resentido las firmas automovilísticas como Ford Motor (-3,11%) o General Motors (-3,96%). Al cierre, prácticamente todos los sectores se han teñido de rojo: el tecnológico (-1,63%), el industrial (-1,57) y el sanitario (-1,27%); mientras que el de bienes de consumo no cíclicos avanzaba un 0,48% y el de las empresas públicas ha cerrado plano.

No obstante, ante el anuncio, los títulos de AK Streel Holding(12%), US Steel Corp (8%), Nucor (3,6%) han experimentado subidas.

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