Macron reconoce públicamente que Francia legalizó la “tortura” durante la guerra de Argelia

El presidente francés, Emmanuel Macron, ha reconocido oficialmente este jueves que Francia instituyó “un sistema” legal que incluía la práctica de actos de “tortura” durante la guerra de Argelia (1954-62). El gesto allana el camino a una reconciliación histórica en el país galo con un período que dejó numerosas heridas que aún permanecen abiertas en la sociedad francesa.

El mandatario ha incidido en un caso particular con gran carga simbólica pidiendo “perdón” a Josette Audin, viuda del profesor universitario Maurice Audin, militante comunista por la independencia argelina y asesinado por militares franceses. Audin, secuestrado en Argel el 11 de junio de 1957, fue torturado hasta la muerte y su fallecimiento ocultado por las autoridades.

No fue hasta 2014 cuando el presidente Hollande dio un primer paso para asumir esta autoría. Casi 60 años después, el Elíseo admite la “práctica sistemática” de “torturas” por parte del Ejército galo en aquella guerra, desde un “sistema legalmente instituido” de “arrestos y detenciones”, que entregó “por vía legal poderes especiales a las fuerzas armadas durante ese período”, entre los que, subraya, figura la “tortura”.

El profesor de matematicas y activista por la independencia argelina, Maurice Audin

El profesor de matematicas y activista por la independencia argelina, Maurice Audin AFP AFP

Un capítulo oscuro en la historia reciente de Francia

Ahora, Emmanuel Macron pide perdón públicamente e insiste: “Es necesario que esta historia sea conocida, y contemplada con valentía y lucidez. Para la calma y la serenidad de todos aquellos a los que ha golpeado, tanto en Argelia como en Francia”, ha dicho el presidente, quien ha mostrado su sensibilidad hacia temas relacionados con la memoria histórica aún considerados tabú por los franceses. El presidente francés ha anunciado “la apertura de los archivos sobre desaparecidos civiles y militares, franceses y argelinos”.

La guerra en Argelia desestabilizó a la sociedad francesa y trajo algunos episodios oscuros relacionados con la manga ancha con la que las fuerzas armadas galas actuaron en el país norteafricano. Por ejemplo, como miembro del cuerpo de paracaidistas, una unidad de élite del Ejército francés, se granjeó una turbia reputación de torturador el posterior dirigente del ultraderechista Frente Nacional, Jean Marie Le Pen, quien perdería el ojo izquierdo en esa guerra.

El gesto de Emmanuel Macron ha tenido acogidas diversas en un país aún muy sensibilizado por aquellos acontecimientos. “Por primera vez, La República asume que, durante la guerra de Argelia, militares franceses en el cumplimiento de su deber podrían ser culpables de lo que deberíamos denominar crímenes de guerra”, analiza en Le Monde la historiadora Raphaëlle Branche.

Otros critican esta actitud señalando que “se reabren heridas”, afirma Marine Le Pen. O Marcel Drouot, de la Federación Nacional de antiguos combatientes: “Siempre hemos condenado la tortura, y si bien ha existido en la guerra de Argelia, la inmensa mayoría de los militares sirvieron lealmente en un período doloroso, problemático y difícil”.

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