La subida fiscal que negocian PSOE y Podemos afectará al 80% de los contribuyentes M. LLAMAS (Libertad Digital)

La batería de medidas presupuestarias que acaba de plantear Podemos para negociar con el Gobierno la aprobación del techo de gasto, requisito previo para sacar adelante los Presupuestos Generales del Estado de 2019, abre una posible vía de acuerdo, ya que las formaciones que lideran Pedro Sánchez y Pablo Iglesias comparten algunos postulados, especialmente en materia tributaria.

El documento que ha presentado el partido morado recoge un largo listado de subidas fiscales, pero la cuestión es que el PSOE ya ha avanzado varias de estas medidas y se muestra dispuesto a negociar otras tantas, posibilitando así la consecución de un pacto.

Subir los impuestos a los bancos, a pesar de que su tipo efectivo ya asciende al 30%, incrementar la llamada fiscalidad verde, donde se incluiría el aumento al diésel, o fijar un tipo efectivo mínimo del 15% en el Impuesto de Sociedades son elementos en los que apenas habría discusión. Algo similar sucedería con la idea de aplicar un “impuesto de solidaridad sobre las grandes fortunas”, ya el Gobierno podría cumplir esta exigencia prorrogando, una vez más, el Impuesto sobre el Patrimonio.

Podemos y PSOE también comparten la necesidad de eliminar o, como mínimo, restringir la tarifa plana que disfrutan los autónomos, haciendo que los trabajadores por cuenta propia coticen en función de sus ingresos reales. Igualmente, coinciden en la posibilidad de destopar la base máxima de cotización, aproximándola al salario real, disparando con el ello el coste laboral de los trabajadores cualificados, cuyos sueldos son superiores a 45.000 euros anuales.

Por el contrario, las únicas discrepancias relevantes a nivel fiscal se centrarían en la subida del tipo marginal del IRPF a las “rentas altas”, puesto que Podemos quiere fijar el umbral a partir de los 60.000 euros al año, mientras que los socialistas lo elevan a 120.000. La eliminación de las Sicav y de las deducciones fiscales sobre los planes de pensiones que propone Iglesias tampoco estarían encima de la mesa, al menos por el momento. Así pues, el margen para el consenso es, a priori, bastante amplio y, si bien los votos de Podemos no son suficientes para aprobar el techo de gasto, los nacionalistas del PNV, ERC y PdeCAT ya han mostrado su disposición a negociar.

Nuevo golpe fiscal a las clases medias

Tanto Sánchez como Iglesias insisten en que su particular senda tributaria no afectaría, en ningún caso, a las clases medias, pero la realidad es muy diferente. Para empezar, la nueva tasa a la banca se acabaría trasladando, de uno u otro modo, a los clientes mediante un aumento de las comisiones o el encarecimiento del crédito, y, dado el alto grado de bancarización que existe en España, esta medida golpearía, de una u otra forma, al conjunto de la población.

Pero, dejando a un lado la nueva tasa bancaria y la subida en Sociedades, la batería de alzas fiscales que negocian PSOE y Podemos dañaría, igualmente, a millones de contribuyentes:

– Fiscalidad verde: tan sólo el aumento del diésel anunciado por el Ejecutivo y respaldado por el partido de Iglesias bajo la excusa de combatir la contaminación supondría un palo extra para cerca de 15 millones de conductores, una cifra equivalente al 80% de los contribuyentes del IRPF.

– Autónomos: más de 1,3 millones de personas se han beneficiado de la tarifa plana de 50 euros por inicio de actividad, con lo que su eliminación les supondría un perjuicio, mientras que el nuevo sistema de cotización que plantea el Gobierno para el régimen de autónomos encarecería la actual cuota a cerca de 1 millón de trabajadores por cuenta propia.

– Cotizaciones: el destope de la cotizaciones sociales afectaría a 2 millones de trabajadores -en su mayoría cualificados-, con un coste medio extra de más de 2.000 euros al año.

– Planes de pensiones: la eliminación de las deducciones fiscales que se aplican a los planes de pensiones privados dañaría el bolsillo de unos 8 millones de contribuyentes, cuya edad media ronda los 50 años.

– IRPF: subir el tipo marginal del IRPF a las rentas de más de 60.000 euros al año afectaría a unos 750.000 contribuyentes

– Patrimonio: el número de declarantes de este tributo ronda los 190.000.

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