JUAN RAMÓN RALLO Vivienda turística: gobernar a golpe de prejuicio y no de evidencia (El Confidencial)

Los políticos suelen llenarse la boca sobre la necesidad de legislar en favor del interés general y en contra de los privilegios extractivos de las minorías. Pero habitualmente hacen justo lo opuesto. A la postre, la práctica totalidad de los ciudadanos no dispone de tiempo material para estudiar las decenas de miles de páginas publicadas cada año en los diversos boletines y diarios oficiales del Estado y que indirectamente les terminan afectando.
En cambio, los grupos de presión sí poseen un interés mucho más inmediato en analizar aquellas piezas legislativas que los afectan directa y específicamente, de modo que concentran sus recursos en tratar de influir sobre ellas. Por esta razón, los gobernantes terminan dejándose seducir por aquellos grupos mejor organizados para influir sobre la opinión pública o para proporcionarles ‘favores’ variopintos que por el respeto imparcial a los derechos de las personas.
El caso de la regulación española de las viviendas de uso turístico resulta bastante revelador al respecto. Desde hace varios años, las distintas administraciones autonómicas y municipales han comenzado a aprobar un maremágnum de regulaciones dirigidas a limitar el aprovechamiento efectivo de los inmuebles turísticos.

Un plan especial evitaría el veto de la comunidad. El ayuntamiento planea dividir la ciudad en cuatro zonas y marcar restricciones (totales o parciales) según la saturación turística de cada una
En particular, los poderes públicos han llegado a imponer un número máximo (o mínimo) de días en los que tales viviendas pueden destinarse a fines turísticos; a prohibir el alquiler vacacional de habitaciones individuales dentro de un mismo inmueble; a no conceder en una ciudad nuevas licencias de alojamientos turísticos; a conceder tan solo tales licencias en algunos barrios del municipio; o a exigir unas dotaciones mínimas de equipamiento.
Las dos razones que habitualmente suelen aducirse para este tipo de gravosas regulaciones son, por un lado, que las viviendas turísticas generan externalidades negativas sobre los vecinos o sobre los recursos urbanos y, por otro, que contribuyen a incrementar sustancialmente el precio de los alquileres y de la compraventa de vivienda.
Sin embargo, ninguna de ambas afirmaciones suele verse respaldada por algo distinto de la mera evidencia anecdótica, tal como unas simples correlaciones entre el incremento de los alquileres y el del número de viviendas turísticas o unos testimonios preseleccionados de vecinos molestos con los inmuebles destinados al alquiler vacacional. De hecho, la escasa evidencia existente al respecto, por ejemplo para el caso de Barcelona, apunta a que la influencia de las viviendas turísticas sobre el alza de los alquileres ha sido totalmente despreciable.
Ninguna de las razones para regular suele verse respaldada por algo distinto de la mera evidencia anecdótica
A su vez, tan gravosas regulaciones tampoco suelen venir acompañadas de estudios mínimamente detallados sobre el impacto de alternativas menos dañinas para los afectados: como podrían ser las tasas turísticas dirigidas a internalizar las posibles externalidades negativas de la afluencia de turistas, la autorregulación de cada comunidad de vecinos (por ejemplo, para prohibir internamente los usos turísticos de las viviendas o para someterlas a exigencias reforzadas) o la liberalización urbanística que permita incrementar la oferta local de inmuebles para contrarrestar la escalada de precios.

Con la llegada del verano son muchos los propietarios que se plantean el alquiler vacacional de sus inmuebles, un tipo de arrendamiento muy de moda que no pasa desapercibido para Hacienda
O dicho de otro modo: sin prácticamente ninguna evidencia acerca de los efectos de los alquileres vacacionales y sin haber dedicado el más mínimo esfuerzo a analizar las posibles alternativas normativas, la mayoría de administraciones públicas españolas se lanzan de cabeza y con obstinación a hiperregular los alquileres turísticos. ¡Ni que fueran meros títeres del ‘lobby’ hotelero, siempre interesado en erradicar a aquellos nuevos competidores que están comiéndole su cuota de mercado!
La CNMC: “No existe evidencia de una relación directa y exclusiva entre la oferta de viviendas turísticas y el precio de las viviendas”
Justamente, este es el tirón de orejas que acaba de propinarles la Comisión Nacional de Mercados y Competencia (CNMC) a todos nuestros gobernantes en un exhaustivo informe que debería ser objeto de atención preferente por parte de cualquier cargo público interesado en la problemática de los alquileres turísticos:
“Si bien se ha registrado un aumento generalizado de los precios de la vivienda en España en los últimos años, ello se debe a una confluencia de factores económicos, entre los que cabría incluir el uso turístico, pero es difícil discernir en qué medida han contribuido cada uno de esos factores. Así, no existe evidencia de una relación directa y exclusiva entre la oferta de viviendas turísticas y el precio de las viviendas”.

Muchos madrileños aprovecharon la oportunidad para ganarse la vida gracias al auge de la aplicación, pero ahora el nuevo plan del consistorio amenaza su sustento
Nótese que la CNMC no está diciendo que la ausencia de evidencia sea evidencia de ausencia. Es decir, ni siquiera descarta que algunas de las acusaciones frecuentemente lanzadas contra las viviendas turísticas pudieran llegar a ser ciertas. Tan solo está constatando que, a pesar del pensamiento oficial y único en esta materia, no existe evidencia sólida de que Airbnb —y el alquiler vacacional, en general— sea un factor relevante en el alza de los precios de la vivienda o esté generando problemas graves de convivencia dentro de nuestras urbes. Y, a pesar de esta radical ausencia de evidencias, nuestros políticos ya se han lanzado a tropel a estrangular un sector económico naciente que puede mejorar y diversificar la oferta competitiva de nuestra principal industria (el turismo), así como reportarles importantes ingresos pasivos a muchos de nuestros conciudadanos.
Las sociedades prósperas no se construyen sobre aparatos públicos extractivos, sino sobre marcos normativos que toleran la competencia y diversidad
Que la actitud por defecto —esto es, antes de un estudio extenso, detallado, imparcial y honesto de la cuestión— entre la inmensa mayoría de nuestros gobernantes sea la de perseguir la libertad de los españoles para así ceder a las exigencias proteccionistas del ‘lobby’ mercantil de turno debería llevarnos a reflexionar acerca de los pésimos incentivos, y de los peores comportamientos, que exhiben nuestras instituciones y nuestra casta política. Las sociedades prósperas y dinámicas no se construyen sobre aparatos públicos extractivos, sino sobre marcos normativos que toleran la diversidad, la competencia, el cambio y el dinamismo social.

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