Hacienda gravará las ventas de Amazon para proteger al pequeño comercio (el Confidencial)

La tributación de las empresas tecnológicas está más cerca. Aunque el Ministerio de Hacienda no cuenta todavía con un borrador de anteproyecto de ley —está a la espera de nombrar un nuevo director general de Tributos—, hay una idea que ya manejan sus responsables políticos. Las compañías de comercio electrónico (con límites en función de su tamaño) pagarán impuestos por cada una de sus transacciones comerciales. Si se cumplen los plazos, en otoño se presentará la norma y entraría en vigor a principios del año que viene.

Hacienda, de esta manera, pretende proteger al pequeño comercio, que está en inferioridad de condiciones respecto de las grandes cadenas, cuya cuota de mercado no para de crecer por la generalización de las ventas ‘online’. La idea que maneja Hacienda es gravar ese tipo de operaciones, hoy exentas. Y se mira, en concreto, a Amazon, el gigante estadounidense que reina en el mercado de las compras electrónicas.
De hecho, como sostiene una fuente, habría que hablar más de la ‘tasa Amazon’ que de la ‘tasa Google’, ya que la empresa de Jeff Bezos será la más afectada. El argumento que se ofrece es simple: de esta manera se protege al comercio tradicional, más intensivo en creación de puestos de trabajo, y con nula capacidad de competencia frente a las grandes corporaciones.

Desde mandar mercancía a otros centros en las semanas previas hasta las denuncias de esquirolaje por parte de los sindicatos. Estos son los puntos centrales del pulso que se vive en la empresa
Y hoy la realidad es que el modelo de bases imponibles en el impuesto de sociedades —entre otras cosas, por la dificultad de identificar el concepto de establecimiento permanente— no es capaz de incluir esa facturación. Evidentemente, por la deslocalización fiscal que se produce entre las empresas filiales y la matriz. Principalmente, a través de países de baja tributación como Irlanda o Luxemburgo o mediante precios de transferencia ficticios entre sociedades del mismo grupo empresarial (las llamadas operaciones vinculadas).
El Ministerio de Hacienda no trabaja en el aire. El andamiaje legal está muy avanzado y coincide con las numerosas propuestas que han hecho en los últimos años tanto la OCDE (Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económico) como la Comisión Europea, que han dado carta de naturaleza a una nueva fiscalidad para la economía digital.

En el caso de Bruselas, lo que se ha propuesto —como instrumento provisional hasta que se haga una reforma integral— es gravar la cadena de valor de una compañía digital. Por ejemplo, los ingresos generados por la venta de espacios publicitarios (que afectaría fundamentalmente a Google); los generados a partir de actividades de intermediación digital que permitan a los usuarios interactuar con otros usuarios (Facebook) y, en particular, a los que puedan facilitar la venta de bienes y servicios (Amazon). La Comisión Europea, igualmente, habilitó a los países —sobre esto no hay consenso— a gravar los ingresos generados a partir de la venta de datos obtenidos de información aportada por el usuario, y que hoy se escapan al fisco por la dificultad de identificar el hecho imponible.

Gravar las descargas
El anterior equipo del Ministerio de Hacienda no dejó listo ningún borrador de anteproyecto de ley, pero sí identificó otra fuente de generación de ingresos para las compañías digitales que pasan desapercibidas para Hacienda: las descargas, lo que afectaría no solo a las plataformas digitales sino a las compañías de telecomunicaciones, aunque en este caso las fronteras son difíciles de fijar.
El único límite que puso la Comisión Europea es que el nuevo impuesto digital que estudia el Gobierno afecte a empresas con un mínimo de ingresos de 750 millones de euros a nivel mundial y de 50 millones de euros en la Unión Europea. Bruselas llegó a estimar unos ingresos adicionales de unos 5.000 millones de euros anuales.

El Ejecutivo pondrá el énfasis de la Inspección de la Seguridad Social sobre las empresas multiservicios para acabar con la externalización de la producción que hunde los salarios
La otra vía de ingresos extra se refiere al impuesto de sociedades, y en este caso lo que se propuso es que se gravaran los beneficios generados en el territorio de un Estado miembro aunque una empresa no tenga presencia física en el país. Las únicas condiciones serán que la facturación sea superior a los siete millones anuales, tenga más de 100.000 usuarios en el Estado miembro o que en un año se generaran más de 3.000 contratos digitales. De esta manera, se pretende poner coto a las deslocalización de beneficios, una práctica habitual entre las compañías tecnológicas, lo que provoca una erosión de las bases imponibles del impuesto de sociedades. Se ha estimado, por ejemplo, que Apple paga solo un 2% de sus impuestos fuera de EEUU.
Precisamente, y en el marco del llamado proyecto BEPS (siglas en inglés de ‘Base Erosion and Profit Shifting’), lanzado por la OCDE y el G20, se creó el Grupo de Expertos sobre la Fiscalidad de la Economía Digital (Gefed), encargado de analizar los desafíos fiscales que plantea la nueva economía, y que hoy se escapa al control tributario. En su último informe, los expertos ponían énfasis en “la neutralización de los tipos de gravamen efectivos excesivamente bajos a los que resultan sometidas algunas empresas”.
La decisión de Hacienda está avalada, además, por un acuerdo entre los gobiernos de Alemania, Francia, Italia y España, que suscribieron una especie de manifiesto para poner en marcha un nuevo modelo de fiscalidad más eficiente en términos de recaudación para las empresas digitales que hoy pagan impuestos en territorios de baja o muy baja tributación.
En concreto, los ministros de Economía de los cuatro países más relevantes de la UE enviaron una carta al presidente del Eurogrupo para que “explore las opciones para establecer un impuesto armonizado sobre el volumen de negocios generado en Europa por las empresas digitales”.

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